Chigorin played the Russian Defence in the 1890s, and later it was adopted by Rubinstein and Alekhine. Watch the video below to watch more detailed explanations of the opening, multiple variations, and extended lines.
Perhaps the most famous game in this variation is Smyslov–Reshevsky, 1945 USSR–USA Radio Match. The Smyslov Variation (ECO C93) is a plan similar to that of the Zaitsev Variation. , Of the variations in this section, the Berlin and Schliemann Defences are the most popular today, followed by the Classical Defence..
In C96, Black or White deviate after 10.Bc2, and do not reach the classical main line position 10...c5 11.d4 Qc7. The Riga Variation, 6...exd4, is considered inferior; the main line runs 7.Re1 d5 8.Nxd4 Bd6! After 6...d6 the e5-pawn is firmly defended and Black threatens to trade off White's Ruy Lopez bishop with 7...b5 and 8...Na5.
Another alternative is playing 4.Bxc6 immediately. The Ruy Lopez Starting Position Above is the starting position of one of the most popular openings in chess, the Ruy Lopez. This is known as the Trajković Variation.
8.Re1 d5 9.Nc3!, Bobby Fischer–Petar Trifunovic, Bled 1961) 8.dxe5 Be6.
If White fortifies the centre with 10.d3 the opening is classified ECO code C94.
Since Black cannot castle (which would allow the Rook to swing over), the best way to get the rook engaged is to open up the column itâs on. 10.Kh1!
Popular use of the Ruy Lopez opening did not develop, however, until the mid-19th century, when the Russian theoretician Carl Jaenisch"rediscovered" its potential. White then usually tries to attack the Black queenside via 15.a4.
White's main continuation is 7.a4 after which Black responds with the typical move 7...Rb8 reaching the starting point of this highly complex variation.
In the Open Defence, 3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Nxe4, Black tries to make use of the time White will take to regain the pawn to gain a foothold in the centre, with play usually continuing 6.d4 b5 7.Bb3 d5 (but not 7...exd4? White can now play 9.d3 or 9.d4, but by far the most common move is 9.h3 which prepares d4 while preventing the awkward pin ...Bg4.
Alternatives are 8.a4, 8.h3, 8.d4, and 8.d3, which are often called "anti-Marshall" moves. The game usually continues 9...Be7 10.Rd1 followed by 10...Nc5 or 10...0-0. ?, a move suggested by his trainer, Igor Zaitsev. In the Howell Attack (ECO C81), 9.Qe2, White aims for play against d5 after Rd1.  White is objectively better here, but Black keeps some good practical chances owing to the sharp positions that occur. This bishop on b5 is engaged and can potentially pin the c6-knight. Traditionally, White's objective in playing the Ruy Lopez is to spoil Black's pawn structure; either way Black recaptures following the exchange on c6 will have negative features, though recapturing gains the bishop pair.
There are probably more variations for the Ruy Lopez than any other opening. The Berlin Defense is a chess Opening that begins with the following moves: The Berlin Defense is a powerful weapon for Black to try to equalize the game (and see in top level play), The d-file is a great resource for White (helps keep rooks active).
With the common use of the double king’s pawn opening (1.e4 e5), the Ruy Lopez is one of the most played openings that any chess player will come across. An important alternative is 4.d3, dubbed the Anti-Berlin, which avoids the notorious Berlin endgame. Although the main line of the Berlin Defense is played far more, these lines are still worth learning. The Schliemann Defence or Schliemann–Jaenisch Gambit (ECO C63), 3...f5!
It is one of the most popular openings, with such a vast number of variations that all codes from C60 to C99 in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO) are assigned to them. This approach ultimately fell out of favour, as had the old form of the Steinitz, due to its passivity, and the entire variation became rare. C74–C76 all begin with 5.c3.
The game is also sharp after 5.Bxc6+ bxc6 6.d4 (ECO C73) or 5.0-0 Bg4 6.h3 h5 (ECO C72). The variation 5.d4 (ECO C77), named after George Henry Mackenzie who employed it on a regular basis, is an old line which, according to modern theory, does not promise White any advantage, though is adopted as an alternative to the main variation 5.0-0. White will try to attack on the kingside via 17.Bg5, moving forces to the kingside.  In modern practice, however, White does not always exchange bishop for knight on c6, preferring the retreat 4.Ba4 if chased by 3...a6.
[failed verification], This gambit became famous when Frank James Marshall used it as a prepared variation against José Raúl Capablanca in 1918; nevertheless, Capablanca found a way through the complications and won.
After 6.0-0 Be7 7.Re1 Black is forced to concede the centre with 7...exd4, since 7...0-0?
This line often leads to sharp positions in which Black wagers that the fianchettoed bishop's influence on the centre and kingside will offset Black's delay in castling.
Today the theory in the Zaitsev variations extends beyond the middlegame, and it is rarely seen at the top levels because of the need to remember a lot of theory. This defence was published in 1843 in Paul Rudolf von Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels and explored by Henry Bird in the late 19th century.  The variations with Black moves other than 3...a6 are older and generally simpler, but the Morphy Defence lines are more commonly played. , Improvements to Black's play were found (Marshall played 11...Nf6!? White has several options, including attempting to build an ideal pawn centre with c3 and d4, defending the e-pawn with Re1 or simply developing. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Lasker had great success with 5.d4 exd4 6.Qxd4 Qxd4 7.Nxd4, most notable his famous win against Jose Raul Capablanca in the St. Petersburg 1914 chess tournament.
The Ruy Lopez is the cornerstone of classical play in chess. Examined in this section are the alternatives to the main line: The Delayed Exchange Variation Deferred (or Exchange Variation Doubly Deferred) (ECO C85), 6.Bxc6, loses a tempo compared to the Exchange Variation, though in compensation, the black knight on f6 and bishop on e7 are awkwardly placed.
The variation was the choice of many top level players as White has had trouble proving an advantage against it.
White can reply with either 7.Bxc6 bxc6 8.d4 or 7.c3 Bg4 (it is too late for Black to transpose into the more usual lines of the Closed Defence, because 7...b5 would allow 8.Bc2, saving White a tempo over the two-move sequence Bb3–c2 found in other variations). This defence shares some similarities with the Modern Steinitz and Russian Defences as Black avoids the ...b5 advance that weakens the queenside. The main line begins with 9.exd5 Nxd5 (9...e4? From the beginning, white looks to develop his bishop while pinning down black’s knight to the king. It’s almost imperative that any chess player study some of the more popular defenses against the Ruy Lopez and understand some of the key concepts of the opening. Due to its vast theory, the Ruy Lopez is also a great weapon to catch your opponents off guard The variation takes its name from the game Capablanca–Bogoljubow, London 1922..
It is solid but slightly passive. Since White has already castled, he can place a rook on the d-file to attack Blackâs position from d1.
By forcing White to defend, White canât attack on the center or Kingside. With 9...Na5 Black chases the white bishop from the a2–g8 diagonal and frees the c-pawn for queenside expansion. The resulting position is shown in the diagram. The more common continuation, 10.d4, is ECO C95. However, despite its drawish tendency, the Berlin Endgame remains the sternest test of the entire variation beginning with 3...Nf6, and a lot of theory has evolved here. White's most important continuations after 4...Bc5 are 5.0-0, 5.Bxc6, and 5.c3.
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